Kashmir

Kashmir [電子書籍版]
Sir Francis Younghusband,

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PREFACE



When Major Molyneux asked me to combine with him in the production of a book on Kashmir I could not resist the temptation to describe what he had so faithfully depicted, though my official duties naturally leave me insufficient time to do real justice to the theme. I have not been able to write with the completeness that I should have wished; and I am aware of many sins of omission. I can only hope that when the description fails the reader will be fortunate to have his attention irresistibly diverted to one or other of my collaborator's beautiful pictures.


The Residency, Srinagar,
September 1908.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I


Scenery and Seasons


Bernier's impression of Kashmir in 1665ーComparison of Kashmir and SwitzerlandーThe road inーFirst signs of springーSrinagar in MarchーA start for ShikarーShikarisーForest-clad hill-sidesーSigns of stagーView over the valleyーRosy mountainsーUnrealised beautiesーA duck-shootーThe view from HokrarーHarwan in springーVarying beauties of KashmirーHarwan in MayーClouds on the mountainsーA Kashmir villageーIrises and rosesーTrout-cultureーA trout streamーSrinagar in AprilーThe view from GupkarーA spring sceneーUnusual rainーThe Nishat BaghーPandrathanーSrinagar in summerーThe valley in SeptemberーThe end of the monsoonーThe gorgeous autumnーA Hokrar duck-shootーThe valley in winterーShikarisーShooting in winter 1


CHAPTER II


Travel in Kashmir


Travel in old timesーMy first entranceーMy old retainerーPresent modes of travelーStages from the railwayーSrinagar house-boatsーSrinagar shopsーExpeditions from SrinagarーThe descent from the Tragbal 47


CHAPTER III


Srinagar and Neighbourhood


An old capitalーThe Maharaja's arrivalーProcession through the cityーThe European quarterーThe Jama MasjidーShah HamadanーDr. x Neve's HospitalーThe Takht-i-SulimanーPandrathanーThe Dal LakeーThe Nasim BaghーThe Shalimar BaghーThe Nishat BaghーParihasapura 63


CHAPTER IV


The Residency Garden


The first week in MarchーFruit trees in bloomーKashmir tulipsーGolden oriolesーRoses in MayーStrawberriesーBurbank's DelphiniumsーThe height of summerーThe garden in autumnーAutumnal colours 87


CHAPTER V


Gulmarg


The "Meadow of Flowers"ーIts numerous attractionsーViews over the valleyーFlowersーNanga Parbat 98


CHAPTER VI


The Valleys and Places of Interest


The Sind ValleyーGangabal LakeーThe LolabーThe Lidar ValleyーMartandーAchibal 108


CHAPTER VII


Sport


Game PreservationーThe year's bagーDuck-shootingーFishing 118


CHAPTER VIII


The People


Kashmir beautiesーThe PunditsーMohamedansーThe Quadiani sectーKashmiri villagersーBoatmen 125 xi


CHAPTER IX


The History of Kashmir


Possible effect of natural beautyーAncient ruinsーMartandーGreek influenceーBuddhist influenceーKanishkaーLalitadityaーAvantivarmanーShort reignsーInternal strugglesーPerpetual intrigueーAdvent of MohamedansーZain-ul-ab-ul-dinーAkbarーThe MoghalsーAfghan oppressorsーSikhsーRise of Gulab SinghーBreak-up of SikhsーGulab Singh and the BritishーTreaty of 1846ーGulab Singh acquires KashmirーIts deplorable stateーRanbir SinghーCountry still depressedーFamine of 1877ーImprovements during present reign133
CHAPTER X


Administration


System of ruleーPersonalーSources of revenueーLand revenue assessment183


CHAPTER XI


Products and Manufactures


WoolーSilkーFruitーRiceーOther grainsーExperimental farmーSoilーImplementsーForestsーMineral productsーShawlsーCarpetsーSilkーPapier-mâchéーPuttooーBoat-buildingーTrade194


CHAPTER XII


The Electrical Scheme


Water-power turned to electric powerーThe Jhelum River harnessedーThe flumeーThe power-houseーDifficulties encounteredーThe dredging scheme222


CHAPTER XIII


The Peaks and Mountain Ranges


The Peak K2ーErrors in observationーNanga ParbatーRocks of great peaksーThe Himalayan range234 xii


CHAPTER XIV


The Story of the Mountains


Interest of studyーKashmir under the seaー100,000,000 years agoーKashmir an archipelagoーFinally upheavedーCause of upheavalーHistory of lifeーAt first no land lifeーFernsーThe Coal MeasuresーGreat reptilesーMammalsーKashmir valley a lakeーAppearance of manーReflections on the storyーNeed to look forwardーCreating higher man

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



By MAJOR E. MOLYNEUX, D.S.O.


 
1. Wild Rhododendrons Frontispiece
2. Approach to Srinagar
3. The Land of Roses
4. Mouth of the Sind Valley
5. Sunset on the Wular Lake
6. Dawn in the Nulla
7. Kotwal from the Forest above Kangan, Sind Valley
8. Above the Camping-Ground, Sonamarg, Sind Valley
9. The Kajnag from Sopur, Early Spring
10. Kotwal from near the Dal Darwaza
11. The Lull before the Storm, Dal Lake
12. Above Lidarwat, Lidar Valley
13. Sunset on the Jhelum, above Srinagar
14. Spring in Kashmir
15. On the Dal Lake in Spring
16. Entrance to the Mar Canal
17. The Temple, Chenar Bagh
18. Ruins of Lalla Rookh's Gardens, Lake Manasbal
19. A Ladaki in Summer Costume
20. The Valley of Gurais
21. Market Boats on the Mar Canal, Srinagar
22. Above the Fifth Bridge, Srinagar
23. Shawl Merchants' Shops, Third Bridge, Srinagar
24. Mosque of Shah Hamadan, Srinagar
25. A Hindu Temple, Srinagar
26. In the Mar Canal, Srinagar
27. Guggribal Pointe on the Dal Lake
28. Lotus Lilies on the Dal Lake
29. Shalimar Gardens
30. The Nishat Bagh
31. A Terrace of the Nishat Bagh
32. The Residency and Club, Srinagar
33. The Takht-i-Suliman, from the Residency Garden
34. On the Circular Road, Gulmarg
35. In the Forest
36. From the Circular Road, Gulmarg
37. Gorge of the Sind Valley at Guggangir
38. The Frozen Lake, Gangabal
39. Early Morning near Pahlgam, Lidar Valley
40. The Ruins of Martand
41. A Srinagar Bazaar
42. A Corner of the Village of Pahlgam, Lidar Valley
43. A Mountain Farm-House
44. A Boatman and his Family
45. Ruins of Temples, Wangat, Sind Valley
46. Ruined Gateway of Martand
47. Ruined Temples of Avantipur
48. Gate of the Outer Wall, Hari Parbat Fort, Srinagar
49. At the River's Edge, Srinagar
50. Lalla Rookh's Tomb, Hassan Abdal
51. Bridge of Burbur Shah, Chenar Bagh, Srinagar
52. Spring Floods in the Kutical Canal, Srinagar
53. Looking down the Gurais Valley, from Dudhgai Village
54. Akbar's Bridge, Karallayar
55. The Camping-Ground at Lidarwat
56. A Wayside Shrine
57. Evening on the Dal Lake
58. Mount Haramokh, from the Erin Nullah
59. A Mountain Glen, before the Melting of the Snows
60. Lake Shisha Nag, Lidar Valley
61. Distant View of Nanga Parbat, from the Kamri Pass
62. Mount Kolahoi, Lidar Valley
63. Rampur, Jhelum Valley Road
64. In the Sind Valley
65. Lake Shisha Nag at Sunset
66. The Tannin Glen, Lidar Valley
67. Going to the Wedding, Upper Indus Valley
68. Mountain Mists
69. Near the Kolahoi Glacier, Lidar Valley
70. Lake Sinsa Nag, Lidar Valley
Sketch Map of Kashmir at end of Volume.

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