Buddhism:InItsConnexionwithBr?hmanism,andHind?ism,andInitsContrastwithChristianity

Buddhism: In Its Connexion with Brāhmanism, and Hindūism, and In its Contrast with Christianity (Smashwords Edition) [電子書籍版]
Sir Monier Monier-Williams

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In my recent work on Brāhmanism I have traced the progress of Indian religious thought through three successive stagesーcalled by me Vedism, Brāhmanism, and Hindūismーthe last including the three subdivisions of ?aivism, Vaish?avism, and ?āktism. Furthermore I have attempted to prove that these systems are not really separated by sharp lines, but that each almost imperceptibly shades off into the other.

I have striven also to show that a true Hindū of the orthodox school is able quite conscientiously to accept all these developments of religious belief. He holds that they have their authoritative exponents in the successive bibles of the Hindū religion, namely, (1) the four Vedasー?ig-veda, Yajur-veda, Sāma-veda, Atharva-vedaーand the Brāhma?as; (2) the Upanishads; (3) the Law-booksーespecially that of Manu; (4) the Bhakti-?āstras, including the Rāmāya?a, the Mahā-bhārata, the Purā?asーespecially the Bhāgavata-purā?aーand the Bhagavad-gītā; (5) the Tantras.

The chief works under these five heads represent the principal periods of religious development through which the Hindū mind has passed.

Thus, in the first place, the hymns of the Vedas and the ritualism of the Brāhma?as represent physiolatry or the worship of the personified forces of natureーa form of religion which ultimately became saturated with sacrificial ideas and with ceremonialism and asceticism. Secondly, the Upanishads represent the pantheistic conceptions which terminated in philosophical Brāhmanism. Thirdly, the Law-books represent caste-rules and domestic usages. Fourthly, the Rāmāya?a, Mahā-bhārata, and Purā?as represent the principle of personal devotion to the personal gods, ?iva, Vish?u, and their manifestations; and fifthly, the Tantras represent the perversion of the principle of love to polluting and degrading practices disguised under the name of religious rites. Of these five phases of the Hindū religion probably the first three only prevailed when Buddhism arose; but I shall try to make clear hereafter that Buddhism, as it developed, accommodated itself to the fourth and even ultimately to the fifth phase, admitting the Hindū gods into its own creed, while Hindūism also received ideas from Buddhism.

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