TheOriginsoftheBritishColonies
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The Origins of the British Colonies (Jovian Press) [電子書籍版]
George Beer

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商品基本情報

  • 著者:   George Beer
  • レーベル:  Jovian Press
  • 発売日:  2016年11月28日
  • 出版社:  Jovian Press
  • 商品番号:  9781537809939
  • 言語:  English

商品説明

Modern political science is based upon the fundamental proposition that the state is an organic entity. Consequently its history, like that of any other organism, is two?fold in nature, ー internal and external. Its internal development finds expression in the constitutional, economic, and social systems, and in ultimate analysis is merely a succession of compromises securing a temporary equilibrium between the claims of the individual to complete freedom of action, and the opposing efforts of society to force the individual to subordinate his own particular interests to those of the commonwealth. The state, however, is not an isolated unit, but lives in an environment of other political organisms, and its external activity is conditioned by this fact. Internal development and external growth react mutually upon each other, and a period of marked successful readjustment of the social forces within the body politic is usually followed by years of quiet in internal affairs, and of corresponding activity in outward expansion, and so on in a regular series. Though at all times profoundly influenced by the course of internal development, the colonizing activities of the state are naturally primarily a part of its international history.
The expansion of England in the seventeenth century was not the result of isolated or fortuitous circumstances, but, like all great historical developments, it was intimately connected with the main currents of the world’s political evolution. In its broadest phase, the colonial movement was an episode in the perennial conflict between East and West, ー the two antithetical extremes which have never been able to meet on a common ground. From time immemorial up to the discovery of America, the most important of world trade-routes has been that connecting the Occident and the Orient. This commerce brought. to Europe the spices, silks, ivory, and precious stones of the East, and greatly enriched those communities most favorably located for engaging therein. During the middle ages; access to the East could be obtained virtually only from the Mediterranean, and as a consequence, the Italian cities were able to control this commerce. From Italy the Eastern products were sent to the German Hanseatic cities, whence they were distributed to the rest of Europe. As a result of their location on this primary trade-route, these cities were exceedingly prosperous and powerful. This condition lasted until the rise of the Ottoman power in the fifteenth century, when the Turks not only captured Constantinople, but also developed a formidable navy and made themselves masters of the Mediterranean. As a consequence, Europe was to a great extent cut off from trade with the East.

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